Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test

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Additional assumptions specific to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test functional test are listed below. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT): The PASAT is a measure of cognitive function that specifically assesses auditory information processing speed and flexibility, as well as. This is the PEBL PASAT: the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. It is commonly used for assessing general cognitive impairment. This video covers how the te.

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Print version ISSN 0004-282X

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X2011000400014

ARTICLE

Paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT): a very difficult test even for individuals with high intellectual capability

Teste auditivo compassado de adição seriada (PASAT): um teste muito difícil mesmo para indivíduos com alta capacidade intelectual

Joseph Bruno Bidin BrooksI; Vinicius Oliveira GiraudII; Youssef Jamal SalehII; Samuel Jose RodriguesII; Lucas Afonso DaiaII; Yara Dadalti FragosoIII

IMD, Lecturer, Medical Faculty, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos SP, Brazil
IIGraduating Medical Students, Medical Faculty, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos SP, Brazil
IIIMD, MSc, PhD Head of the Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos SP, Brazil

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the difficulty of paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) in a population of high intellectual level, under ideal cognitive testing circumstances.
METHOD: One hundred medical students underwent PASAT testing. They had slept well the night before, they had eaten before the assessment, they were not using any drugs that could affect the central nervous system and they did not have depression, anxiety or any chronic disease.
RESULTS:
The average result from the three-second version of PASAT was 57.5% and, from the two-second version, it was 44.3%.
CONCLUSION: Even under ideal circumstances, PASAT is a very difficult test for the general population. It may not be ideal for neurologists to screen, assess and follow up patients with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis.

Key words: multiple sclerosis, PASAT, cognition, test.

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a dificuldade do teste auditivo compassado de audição seriada (PASAT) em uma população de alto nível intelectual, sob condições ideais para testes cognitivos.
MÉTODO: Cem estudantes de medicina se submeteram ao PASAT. Eles haviam dormido bem na noite anterior, tinham comido antes da avaliação, não estavam em uso de qualquer droga que pudesse afetar o sistema nervoso central e não apresentavam depressão, ansiedade ou qualquer doença crônica.
RESULTADOS:
A média de acertos na versão de três segundos do PASAT foi 57,5% e, para a versão de dois segundos, a média foi 44,3%.
CONCLUSÃO:
Mesmo sob condições ideais, PASAT é um teste muito difícil para a população geral. Talvez ele não seja ideal para que os neurologistas triem, avaliem e façam seguimento da função cognitiva na esclerose múltipla.

Palavras-chave:esclerose múltipla, PASAT, cognição, teste.

Assessment of neurological disabilities in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important part of every patient's consultation. Appearance or worsening of disabilities will guide pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Although widely used, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS)1 presents the serious disadvantage of overvaluing the ability to walk over other neurological functions. In order to bypass this disadvantage of EDSS, the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC)2 has now become the most recommended tool for assessing neurological disabilities in MS. The MSFC has been translated and validated for use in many countries, including Brazil3. It provides sensitive and reliable measurement of disability for patients with MS and includes functional assessments of both the upper and the lower limbs, along with cognition.

The cognitive component of MSFC is the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). This consists of difficult serial addition of numbers, and it ultimately assesses information-processing speed and/or working memory4. PASAT activates the left frontal and parietal areas5, and the results relate to brain lesions and brain atrophy, particularly when the periventricular areas are involved6. Although its inter- and intra-rater reliability is excellent, PASAT results are influenced by practice7,8. It is also known that some subjects may ignore a few test items in order to break the information down into manageable portions, thus avoiding performing several cognitive tasks simultaneously9. Furthermore, as would be expected, PASAT results may be influenced by intelligence10 and mathematics ability11. Patients have an aversive feeling towards PASAT12, unaware that bad scores may not reflect neurological impairment11. Recent studies have even suggested that PASAT should be replaced by another test for MSFC assessment13.

Our own experience with the use of PASAT has shown that most patients with MS do not like the test and often perform it badly. The aim of the present study was to assess the results from applying PASAT to a young and intelligent group of participants. With this purpose, one hundred medical students were invited to participate in this project.

METHOD

Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test Free

The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Universidade Metropolitana de Santos. All the participants gave their written consent to take part in the testing.

One hundred medical students were recruited for testing. They all claimed to have slept well the night before, they had eaten before the assessment, and they were not using any drugs that could affect the central nervous system. They said that they did not have any depression, anxiety or any chronic disease for which they were undergoing treatment at the time they were tested. They also said that they had not consumed any alcohol for at least 24 hours preceding the test, and none of them had been making use of illicit drugs.

PASAT was applied under ideal conditions. Each study subject, in turn, was seated comfortably in a quiet room, and was given full instructions on the test. Both PASAT versions (two seconds and three seconds) were applied, i.e. the sequence of numbers was presented with two and three-second intervals, as separate tasks of the test.

RESULTS

The assessed group consisted of 49 women and 51 men, aged between 20 and 40 years. Because of the characteristics of the population (medical students), 76% of the subjects were aged between 20 and 25 years. A summary of the results is presented in the table.

The average result from the three-second version of the test was 34.5 (57.5%) and, from the two-second version, it was 26.6 (44.3%).

There were no statistically significant differences between males and females, or correlations of results with age of participants. All participants considered the test to be very difficult to perform.

DISCUSSION

Addition

The recent review by Ferreira14 showed that assessing cognition in MS is a challenge. A large variety of factors that are not specifically related to cognitive dysfunction may influence performance in the tests usually used in clinical practice. Most neurologists do not have a neuropsychologist available for testing all patients and, therefore, have to screen and select cases for referral, for proper and detailed neuropsychological testing. Ferreira14 concluded that the absence of uniform recommendations for cognition testing make it difficult to obtain clear evidence of cognitive dysfunction.

The present work adds to the discussion on cognition testing, through showing that the widely used PASAT provides inadequate results even for young, intellectually active individuals under ideal testing conditions. The results among MS patients may therefore be compromised, given that these patients frequently present fatigue, depression, sleep disorders, anxiety and systemic diseases15. Their symptoms present fluctuations that may affect the results from a test like PASAT, without indicating specific cognitive deterioration.

In conclusion, while PASAT may be a useful test for neuropsychological evaluations by specialists, it may not be an adequate MS screening test for routine consultations conducted by neurologists. These questions are not new: Gow and Deary already reviewed the limitations of PASAT and suggested that attention and concentration should be tested without numbers12. It may still take time for neurologists to uniformly agree on a simple, reliable and easy-to-apply cognition test for MS in daily clinical practice.

REFERENCES

1. Kurtzke JF. Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology 1983;33:1444-1452. [ Links ]

2. Fischer JS, Rudick RA, Cutter GR, et al. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Measure (MSFC): an integrated approach to MS clinical outcome assessment. Mult Scler 1999;5:244-250. [ Links ]

3. Tilbery CP, Mendes MF, Thomaz RB, et al. Padronização da Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Measure (MSFC) na população brasileira. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2005;.63:127-132. [ Links ]

4. Forn C, Belenguer A, Parcet-Ibars MA, Avila C. Information-processing speed is the primary deficit underlying the poor performance of multiple sclerosis patients in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2008;30:789-796. [ Links ]

5. Cardinal KS, Wilson SM, Giesser BS, Drain AE, Sicotte NL. A longitudinal fMRI study of the paced auditory serial addition task. Mult Scler 2008;14: 465-471. [ Links ]

6. Jasperse B, Vrenken H, Sanz-Arigita E, et al. Regional brain atrophy development is related to specific aspects of clinical dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Neuroimage 2007;38:529-537. [ Links ]

7. Solari A, Radice D, Manneschi L, Motti L, Montanari E. The multiple sclerosis functional composite: different practice effects in the three test components. J Neurol Sci 2005;228:71-74. [ Links ]

8. Rosti-Otajarvi E, Hamalainen P, Koivisto K, Hokkanen L. The reliability of the MSFC and its components. Acta Neurol Scand 2008;117:421-427. [ Links ]

9. Fisk JD, Archibald J. Limitations of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a measure of working memory in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2001;7:363-372. [ Links ]

10. Wiens NA, Fuller KH, Crossen JR. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test: adult norms and moderator variables. JClin Exp Neuropsychol 1997;19:473-483. [ Links ]

11. Tombaugh TN. A comprehensive review of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2006;21:53-76. [ Links ]

12. Gow AJ, Deary IJ. Is the PASAT past it? Testing attention and concentration without numbers. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2004;26:723-736. [ Links ]

13. Drake AS, Weinstock-Guttman B, Morrow AS, Hoinacki D, Munschauer FE, Benedict RH. Psychometrics and normative data for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite: replacing the PASAT with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Mult Scler 2010;16:228-237. [ Links ]

14. Ferreira MLB. Cognitive deficits in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2010;68:632-641. [ Links ]

15. Horton M, Rudick RA, Hara-Cleaver C, Marrie RA. Validation of a self-report comorbidity questionnaire for multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology 2010;35:83-90. [ Links ]

Correspondence:
Yára Dadalti Fragoso
Rua da Constituição 374
11015-470 Santos SP - Brasil
E-mail: [email protected]

Received 2 September 2010
Received in final form 18 December 2010
Accepted 6 January 2011


Test



Addition







  • Block design






  • Auditory PASAT: Present a continual sequence of numbers at a fixed pace



    • Patient must add the last 2 numbers in their mind each time a new number is presented


  • Visual PASAT: Numbers are displayed one at a time on the screen at a fixed pace




  • “You will be presented with a sequence of numbers; each time you hear a new number, add it to the previous number in your mind”




  • Distortion, motion, slice timing correction, coregistration to MPRAGE, optional smoothing




  • General linear model: Block design




  • Activates dorsolateral prefrontal (Brodmann 9, 46), intraparietal sulcus (7, 40), lateral premotor (6), SMA (32), frontal eye fields (8), and medial cerebellum




  • Visual attention (cursor, visual search, random pattern comparison) or working memory tasks (Sternberg, n-back, Tower of London)

Addition


  • Used in group designs to assess performance of working memory in patient populations


  • Used in individual subjects for presurgical mapping




  • Difficult to assess task performance




Activation map for an auditory PASAT task is shown for 1 patient. Image is the average of 2 sequences, 6-minutes each. Hot colors show greater activation during the PASAT blocks, and cool colors show greater activation during the rest blocks. Significance is set at q < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected. For the task, the patient listened to a list of single-digit numbers. Each time a new number was heard, she added in her mind the previous 2 numbers. Rest blocks contained no stimuli. Task activation is seen in auditory cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, medial cerebellum, frontal eye fields, and supplementary motor area.


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